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Mount Kailash is a tremendous spiritual library. The Buddhists consider Kailash as the axis of the existence. In the whole area from the Far-east Asian countries to the Indian sub-continent to the Central-Asian countries, and even in spaces as far as the Middle East, Kailash has been held as a very sacred space for centuries.

Starting from Shiva himself, many great beings chose to deposit and preserve their work in Kailash. Rishabadev, the saints of the Bon religion, two of the greatest Buddhist teachers, Agastyamuni, the Nayanmars, - all of them chose Kailash Parvat.


Myths & Legends

Mount Kailash is the most sacred mountain in Asia. As the tallest amongst the surrounding mountains, it stands alone deep within the Himalayas of Tibet and is only accessible through treacherous roads and hikes. Its majestic qualities lay within its unique shape; its sides point out towards each cardinal direction. The mountain’s physical appearance isn’t the only thing that makes its special. Kailash is a sacred site for many religions in the area. In Buddhist and Hindu cosmology, Mount Kailash is the earthly manifestation of Mount Semeru, which is the spiritual center of the universe. Mount Kailash holds significant power, as the very tip of the mountain is the central point of the cosmos’ rotation. In the Hindu tradition, the mountain is the throne of the great god Shiva. In Buddhism, the mountain hosts the greatest tantric meditation god, Demchong, who represents supreme bliss. Before Buddhism even took root in Tibet, the native Bon religion saw Mount Kailash as being sacred. In Bon mythology, Mount Kailash is the site where their founder Shenrab came down from heaven.  Therefore, followers of the Bon religion believe that the entire region surrounding Kailash is mystical and that the mountain is a nine-story swastika that is the seat of all spiritual power. For all of these religions, Mount Kailash is the source of the four rivers that are able to give life; the Indus, Brahmaputra, Sutlej and Karnali. These four rivers divide the world into four regions.

Pilgrims from these three religions adhere to an ancient tradition that dates back thousands of years and embark on long treks through the Himalayas to reach Kailash. The pilgrims make these hugely spiritual and life-changing journeys in order to become closer to the divine, and to confirm themselves as devoted members of their religion and culture. Once they reach the mountain, pilgrims complete a 57 km circuit around it (Tibetan Review). In the Hindu and Buddhist tradition, pilgrims walk clockwise, while in the Bon tradition they move counterclockwise. One trip around the mountain wipes away all the sins in a pilgrim’s current lifetime. 108 revolutions will erase all the sins of innumerable lifetimes and reach salvation. Pilgrims can also reach salvation with only one circuit if they submerge themselves into the freezing cold waters of Lake Mansarovar, located at the base of the mountain.

One trip around the Kailash mountain can take anywhere from one day to three weeks to complete. Some pilgrims take up to a month because they do body prostrations for the entire circuit. To complete a body prostration the pilgrim bends down, kneels, prostrates full length, makes a mark with his fingers, rises to his knees, prays, and then crawls forward on hands and knees to the mark made by his fingers. Whether Hindu or Buddhist, members of the cultures acknowledge how sacred the site is and respect the land. No one is allowed to climb the mountain out of respect for the gods and the consecrated.  Surrounding the mountain are several monasteries and other sacred landmarks that are often visited by the pilgrims. Many pilgrims leave offerings around the mountain, including locks of hair and teeth.

Unfortunately, for most mystics on the planet, if they get to share one or two percent of their work with people around them, they are very fortunate. Most of them don’t even get to do that. So they always chose to deposit their work in some space that is not too frequented by human beings, but at the same time it's accessible for those who wish to go. Kailash is such a place. It is not totally inaccessible but it's hard enough to discourage a lot of people.

Unfortunately, preparing people to receive what is known by a certain opening up of your own perception, doesn’t happen frequently enough. Whatever work you do with people around you constantly gets limited because of social restrictions to start with, and then by individual problems that people have - psychological and physiological limitations and karmic bondages. It is rare to be able to prepare one or two people who will be able to receive everything that you know. Very few masters have ever been that fortunate. The rest have to work around people and around the social norms and limitations. So, not even a small percentage of what they know gets actually transmitted or shared. They find rocks very receptive. There have been many places where mystics deposited their work, but Kailash has been the place. In terms of the volume and the variety that has been deposited in Kailash, it is the place.

The very idea behind a pilgrimage is fundamentally to subdue the sense of who you are. The idea of a trek or a mountaineering feat is always towards a sense of achievement to make yourself bigger than who you are, but the idea of a pilgrimage is to subdue yourself. It is to become nothing in the process of just walking and climbing and subjecting yourself to various arduous processes of nature. So these places of pilgrimage in the ancient past were always located in such places where a person has to go through a certain amount of physical, mental, and every kind of hardship to get there, so that in the process he becomes less than who he thinks he is right now. Today things have been made much comfortable.


Bonpo Creation Myth

The Lubum Trawo reason that a serpent goddess, named Queen of the Water Spirits, of cosmic length created the physical, biological, and divine constructs of the universe out of her body.[6] From her nostrils originated the various types of life-nourishing winds. From her blood came the 5 oceans and from her nerve channels came water courses. The light from her flesh created the earth. Animals originated from her limbs. Night and day came from her back and front. The spirit world came out of the light from her organs.

There are a few tales stating that universe originated from an egg or eggs. The oldest myth is that the entire universe arose from an egg. In another myth there were 2 eggs, 1 luminous and the other of darkness. From the light one arose an Illuminating Resplendence being (Kuntu Sangpo, an avatar of Trigyal Khugpa), while from the other came King of the Negative Realm (Kalpa Medbum Nagpo or Munpa Zerden)[7], and this king created Tong Zham Nangmo out of his own shadow. From these 2 originated the good and evil attributes of the universe. Then of 3 eggs the Muchoi Tromdur mentions there was a white, copper, and black egg. From then came gods and humans.


The myth of the origin of existence (srid pa'i grol phug) is narrated in detail in the above-mentioned Treasury of the Origin of Existence (Srid pa'i mdzod phug) and in Drenpa Namkha's comment~. It describes two 'cosmic eggs' (srid pa'i sgong nga), one luminous and the other dark, which give rise, respectively, to the dimensions of being and non being, of light and of darkness.

Here is a summary:


In the beginning in the dimension of empty space, thanks to the power of Trigyel Khugpa6 there formed the winds (the air element) tsentin, whose nature was to retain and not allow to disperse, nentin, whose substance had the characteristic to support and not allow to fall, and trinni which had a screen of heat.

The movement of the winds produced a vortex of light that whirled vigorously from whose energy heat was emitted, and (the element) fire was formed.

Then from the cold vapor of the wind that supported and from the heat of the fire (the element) water was formed as dew and rime, on which minute particles of matter (rdul phra rab: the earth element) condensed. These particles, shaken and blended by the wind whirling swiftly in space formed the earth and the mountains.

From the essence of the five elements (thus formed) there came into being two eggs, an egg of light ('ad kyi sgong nga) and an egg of darkness (mun pa'i sgong nga).

Due to the power of the aspiration vow of the deity (Trigyel Khugpa) from the pure essence of the five elements the egg of light formed, with four fates and eight corners, the size of a seven-year-old female yak (grus ma). From the impure essence, and due to the aspiration vow of Medbum Nagpo (Infinite Black Non Being) the egg of darkness formed, with three corners
and as big as a three-year-old bull (shad) lying down.

The luminous egg hatched by the force of its own light and its own rays, and from the clear light that spread in space were born the three hundred and sixty Thorse ('thor gsas: Scattered Deities), men of light who took on the task of protecting virtuous actions. From the rays that gushed downwards were born the Dase (mda' gsas: Arrow Deities), ten thousand men with one hundred thousand horses who took on the task of sustaining heroism in deities and men. From the inner ~ssence of the egg was born the emanation of Trigyel Khugpa called Sidpa Sangpo Bumtri, a divine manifestation in human form, a white man with seven turquoise ~ plaits down to his armpits. He is the king of existence, of plenitude, of the good (dkar: literally, 'white') and of virtue.

The black egg hatched in the dimension of black darkness, and from the black light that was emitted upwards were born darkness, obfuscation (thibs) and obscuration (rmugs). From the rays that spread falling downwards were born madness, obfuscation and obscuration. From the inner essence of the egg was born a man of black light with his hair tied in three big plaits. Medbum Nagpo gave him the name Munpa Serden (Radiant Black Darkness). He is a king .who likes to annihilate and to empty, to interrupt and to destroy.

who are the Bonpo?

Bon is commonly considered to be the indigenous religious tradition of Tibet, a system of shamanistic and animistic practices performed by priests called shen (gshen) or bonpo (bon po). 

In early, records, "bon" denotes a particular type of priest who performed rituals to propitiate local spirits and ensure the well-being of the dead in the afterlife. It is only much later, under the influence of Buddhism, that "Bon" comes to designate pre-Buddhist Tibetan religious practices in general. It should also be noted that the rituals performed by these early priests as reported in the old records appear to differ substantially from contemporary Bon.

Bonpo priest.jpg

As Per Kvaerne notes, for example, they were by all accounts concerned with taking care of the dead through ceremonies intended to ensure their safe journey to the afterlife and their material prosperity after arrival.1 The rituals of the bon often involved sacrificing animals (mainly horses, yaks, and sheep), making offerings of food and drink, and burying the dead with precious jewels, the benefits of which were apparently transferred to them in the afterlife through shamanistic rituals. The most elaborate of these were the ceremonies for the kings, each of whom was buried in a specially-constructed tomb, and apparently joined in death by servants, ministers, and retainers. The royal priests then performed special ceremonies, which according to old records sometimes lasted for several years. These were intended to ensure the well-being of the kings in the afterlife and to solicit their help in mundane affairs.

The Tibetan folk religion encompasses indigenous beliefs and practices, many of which predate the introduction of Buddhism and which are commonly viewed as being distinct from the mainstream of Buddhist practice. These are primarily concerned with propitiation of the spirits and demons of Tibet, which are believed to inhabit all areas of the country Folk religious practices rely heavily on magic and ritual and are generally intended to bring mundane benefits, such as protection from harm, good crops, healthy livestock, health, wealth, etc. Their importance to ordinary people should not be underestimated, since in the consciousness of most Tibetans the world is full of multitudes of powers and spirits, and the welfare of humans requires that they be propitiated and sometimes subdued. Every part of the natural environment is believed to be alive with various types of sentient forces, who live in mountains, trees, rivers and likes, rocks, fields, the sky, and the earth. Every region has its own native supernatural beings, and people living in these areas are strongly aware of their presence. In order to stay in their good graces, Tibetans give them offerings, perform rituals to propitiate them, and sometimes refrain from going to particular places so as to avoid the more dangerous forces.

According to the teaching of Tonpa Shenrab, the world was created by means of emanation, but in its duality, that is, light-darkness, day-night, male-female, good-evil.

According to Bon doctrine, Tonpa Shenrab lived 18,000 years ago, predating Gautama Buddha. Practitioners of Bon believe that he first studied the Bon doctrine in Tagzig Olmo Lung Ring, at the end of which he pledged to Shenlha Okar, the god of compassion, that he would guide the peoples of this world to liberation.

Like Gautama, Tönpa Shenrab was of royal birth. Tonpa Shenrab renounced his royal inheritance at the age of thirty-one to travel the path to enlightenment. Tonpa Shenrab embraced the life of a renunciate and commenced austerities, spreading the doctrine of Bon; at length, he arrived in the land of Zhangzhung near what is widely held to be Mount Kailash.

They believe that this material universe is the Exterior Reality (phyi snod) while Inner Reality (bcud) is the pure spiritual realm. The dualistic onto-metaphysical principle for the process of existence is classed as Being (yod-pa) and Non-Being (med-pa.)[2] Bon explains that this dualism keeps all things in cosmic harmony. Bonpo proposes that the universe responds to the needs of the disciples. For example, if the Bon teachings are in a state of danger, the universe will respond by sending forth a Buddha for the welfare of humanity.

Spiritual Development

Tenzin Namdak Rinpoche, senior teacher of the Bon religion in exile, with his Holiness the Dalai Lama.

Bon teaches a threefold trajectory towards self-realization.[8]

  1. Repenting by disgusting the worldly matters which are the cause of human misery (Ngyes "byung)

  2. Training one's mind in altruistic aspiration to attain full enlightenment for benefit of all beings, that is, Bodhicitta (Byang chub kyi sems)

  3. Viewing the ultimate nature of reality as devoid of any inherit existence and self-identity, that is, as empty (stong pa nyid)


conflict over mt. Kailash

In the early 1950s Tibet was invaded by communist China and the oppression of religious freedom began. In May of 1951 the Chinese government imposed a treaty called the “17 Point Agreement for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet”. Affirming Chinese sovereignty over Tibet, the agreement was signed by the 14th Dalai Lama with extreme distress (Dhussa). Some members of the Tibetan cabinet say the delegates were coerced into signing the agreement, while others deny that it actually happened.  The Chinese presence in Tibet escalated, leading to extreme repression of the indigenous people. Chinese troops attempted to crush religious beliefs by destroying many religious buildings, including six monasteries at Mount Kailash, and imprisoning monks. China dictated that Tibetan’s could have freedom of religious belief, but were not allowed to practice their religion openly. Uprisings ensued throughout the country.  The largest rebellion in 1959 resulted in the death of 87,000 Tibetans and the Dalai Lama was forced into exile. At this time, access to Mount Kailash was closed and pilgrims were not allowed to make their sacred journey.


A little after the Chinese Cultural Revolution, the Chinese government loosened its grip on Tibet. By the 1980s, Tibetans regained some of their religious freedom. Monasteries were rebuilt, many religious artifacts were returned, and access to Mount Kailash was reopened. However the struggle for the sacred land only escalated for the Buddhist, Hindu and Bon pilgrims wishing to visit the mountain. Currently, pilgrims must receive a permit before they can begin to travel. The permit is issued by the Chinese government and requires a lengthy process; some are not able to obtain permits at all due to inefficiencies and biases in the system. Indian citizens who sometimes travel to Kailash, face even more hardships imposed by China’s rule. Several thousand Indian pilgrims apply each year, but only one thousand permits are issued (Timmons).

The need for a permit is not the only thing that is creating conflict over Mount Kailash. China is currently working on making this sacred site one of the most popular tourist destinations in Tibet. The Chinese government does not acknowledge religion and is more interested in how Mount Kailash can benefit its economy. What once was nearly inaccessible is now becoming filled with roads for western and Chinese tourists. Phone lines and bridges have also been installed in the region. In 2006, China went even further in their plans and launched a campaign for a train to link Beijing to Lhasa (the town near Mount Kailash). As tourist flow increases in the region, less pilgrims are able to truly experience the peaceful journey to the sacred site. Now, chattering tourists and cars interrupt their prayers and they are no longer able to experience the remoteness of the region.

China has made a point to diminish the amount of religious activity in the small and powerless Tibet. The Dalai Lama has referred to the conflict in Tibet as “cultural genocide” because China is forcing their beliefs onto Tibet and there is only so much pressure that a country can withstand (Poriter). However, the will of the Tibetan Nation to retain their cultural identity has led to a path of recovery in recent years. Through uprisings and rebellions, the people of Tibet have gained international interest in their cause. Organizations around the world are coming together in the effort to help Tibet restore their religious practices. Becoming a UNESCO world heritage site would be the most helpful way for Mount Kailash to remain sacred. However, in order for it to achieve this status, it has to be nominated by the Chinese government (Poriter). Tibet and China are slowly making progress toward achieving peace, and hopefully with that peace will come religious freedom for all the citizens of Tibet. The Dalai Lama representatives finally met with the leaders of China in 2002, nine years after their last encounter and there have been several meeting in subsequent years. The Dalai Lama is advocating an autonomous Tibet. However, the best way for Mount Kailash to be protected is for Tibet to gain complete independence from China.

This conflict illustrates many of the topics we have discussed in class. One of these topics is the difference between the views of the indigenous culture and outsiders when it comes to physical land. In this case, the many native religions view the mountain as a spiritual center and therefore want it to exist in its natural state. Meanwhile, the outside culture sees the land as a potential profit. By destroying the land around Mount Kailash and building roadways, the Chinese government is able to increase tourism and therefore their wealth, completely disregarding the cultural and spiritual significance that exists beyond surface deep.


Of the estimated thousand Tibetans detained by Chinese authorities in Driru since 2013, the whereabouts of around 600 are still unknown, Pema Gyal—a researcher at the Dharamsala, India-based Tibetan Centre for Human Rights and Democracy—told RFA.

“The Chinese government over the years has imprisoned many Tibetans like Kunchok Jinpa on false allegations, and many have reportedly died due to torture in the prisons,” Gyal said.


working together toward a common goal

The International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) is an intergovernmental knowledge and learning centre working on behalf of the people of the Hindu Kush Himalaya (HKH). We are based in Kathmandu, Nepal and work in and for our eight regional member countries – Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal, and Pakistan.

We work to improve the lives and livelihoods of men, women, and children of the HKH and protect mountain environments and cultures. The knowledge we create and share helps the people of the HKH become more resilient, make the most of new opportunities, and prepare for change. Our work strengthens regional cooperation for conservation and sustainable mountain development.

From Mount Kailash and Lake Mansarovar to vital rivers such as the Indus, Sutlej, Brahmaputra, and Karnali, people separated by borders are united by the Kailash Sacred Landscape’s cultural and environmental assets. And their shared experiences can be harnessed to ensure the landscape’s long-term sustainable development and conservation.

Our work accordingly transcends geographical boundaries. It involves various actors and stakeholders from the countries that share the landscape: China, India, and Nepal. All three member countries have endorsed the regional cooperation framework, a guiding instrument for developing and implementing KSLCDI.

We strengthen transboundary cooperation by institutionalizing elements of the regional cooperation framework. And we are committed to mainstreaming sustainable ecosystem management approaches and practices in the context of climate change adaptation, pushing for better planning and decision making informed by scientific research and community inputs.


  • Strengthen transboundary cooperation by institutionalizing elements of the regional cooperation framework

  • Ensure widescale adoption of sustainable environmental conservation practices for long-term monitoring and socioeconomic research

  • Establish a regional knowledge-sharing platform to support evidence-based decision making at the regional and national levels


Kailash Confluence: Reviving connections for a sustainable future

In 2018, the first Cross-border Tourism and Trade Fair held in Limi Valley, Humla, revived the cross-border connect, enhancing economic, cultural and social lifelines in the region. The second iteration of this event – the Kailash Confluence – was organized in Yalbang, Humla, on 23–24 September 2019. The event brought participants from China, India, and Nepal together to celebrate the region’s shared culture, history, and economy and foster transboundary tourism and trade in the region.

how you can help protect
Mt. Kailash

International Campaign for Tibet


As the largest Tibet support group in the world, we help Tibetans in their peaceful struggle for democracy and human rights and seek to preserve Tibet’s ancient culture of wisdom. Through our monitoring and reports, we’ve told the world the truth about human rights, environmental issues and political conditions in Tibet, which the Chinese government tries to hide. At the same time, we’ve reached out to Chinese people to build relationships, mutual understanding and trust. Throughout our more than 30 years, ICT has made progress in promoting the cause of self-determination for the people of Tibet. A 501(c)(3) organization, ICT has offices in Washington, DC, AmsterdamBerlin and Brussels.


Make a donation in honor of .someone you love. 


universal consciousness:
element of the
Crown chakra

Cosmos. Pure light and source of creation.

This energy center is associated with the element of thought, connection to spirit, universal consciousness, enlightenment, wisdom, unity and self-knowledge.

Working with this chakra indicates an interest in a higher purpose and an elevated way of being. You are ready to let go of misunderstandings about who you are and why you are here.

Complications that come from this chakra can be confusion, imbalance, a lack of connection to the manifest world, unfocused, hyper spiritualization (a.k.a. too much meditation not enough doing laundry) and an inability to function practically.

According to Tantric philosophy, the seventh chakra is both a receiver and giver of energy and consciousness. It receives energy to sustain life and it gives back the personal energy to unite with the collective pool of consciousness.


It is the meeting point between finite (the body and the ego) and infinite (the universe and soul).

It is the place where time and timelessness intersect and where death and eternal life meet.

Sahasrara marks the conclusion of a pilgrimage and a foray onto a new path. Shakti and Shiva --- Matter and Consciousness --- merge in the brilliance of this chakra. We end the struggle toward unity and now are called to live in a unified state, human and divine simultaneously. Sahasrara means "thousand," referencing this chakra as the "lotus of the thousand petals." All the colors exist within this chakra. 

Related diseases: 

  • muscles, skin and skeletal system

  • depression, anxiety, insomnia, learning issues

  • chronic problems such as exhaustion, Alzheimer's, epilepsy, dementia, multiple sclerosis, and Parkinson's disease

  • sensitivity to light, sound or the environment

  • migraines and dizziness

  • brain tumors

  • mental illness, including schizophrenia, psychosis, and neurosis. 

Sahasrara provides us the opportunity to blend our emotions and beliefs with higher virtues such as awareness, truth, hope, and love. These states unfold a genuine transcendence, literally lifting us out of the much and mud of psychological constructs such as judgmentalism, hatred, discrimination, and the like. 

The positive archetype is the guru, who uses the tools of intelligence and logic to align with spiritual laws. 

The negative archetype is the egotist, who sees little beyond the self. 

The "way of the crown chakra" is the way of going beyond the limits of your own ego. It is the way of transcending the ego and knowing that all of creation is interconnected at a fundamental level.

The thousand petal chakra embraces an attitude of gratitude for one's life.

When we realize that everything is interconnected and that we are part of the larger scheme of life, we begin to live with gratitude, faith and trust, rather than filled with fear and anxiety.

We are guided by the higher power and we feel divinity from within and from without.

The challenge of this chakra is to liberate the spirit - open to the divine - and at the same time stay firmly rooted deep in the ground.

Freeing yourself from the greatest of all illusions, the ego

In a universe perceived as a delicate interaction between human beings and the invisible forces that inhabit the cosmos, the main purpose of the pilgrimage is to placate local spirits, thereby repairing any cracks that might have appeared in the relationship between these two worlds. 


The journeys also are undertaken as a means of warding off dangerous epidemics or as a specific form of exorcism. 


The central focus of the pilgrimage is the performance of a meditation ritual of self-sacrifice, the "chod". The officiants, after having invited a whole host of invisible beings of varying status to gather visualize their own body being totally dismembered by a female divinity of wisdom (dakini). The remains, ritually transformed into pure substances and a "nectar of immortality" through the power of meditation, are wholly offered to the invited invisible guests during a ceremonial banquet. 

Crown chakra

What are some signs of Crown Chakra Problems?

  • Rigidity and spiritual ignorance

  • Rejection of spiritual possibilities or changes in thought

  • Focusing solely on past events or the future

  • Deciding future events are ‘fixed’ and ‘inevitable’

  • Inability to access meditation/find peace of mind

  • Fear of divine ‘punishment’

  • A feeling of disconnection to anything greater than yourself

  • Lack of morals and selfish behaviour

  • Self obsession

While a deficient crown chakra is passive or energetically “numb,” an excessive crown chakra is energetically aggressive or manic.

Here’s a breakdown of the difference between the two:

  • Deficient = lifeless, sluggish, passive, blocked, inwards (not enough energy flows in).

  • Excessive = lively, agitated, reactive, aggressive, outwards (too much energy flows in).

Therefore, if you have a deficient crown chakra, you will be more prone to issues such as apathy, loneliness, and chronic fatigue. On the other hand, if you have an excessive crown chakra you will be prone to egotism, greed, and mental confusion.

Meditate, meditate, meditate

Meditation means the recognition or discovery of one’s own true self. – Sri Chinmoy

To many, the prevalence of meditation as a spiritual tool has become old and cliche. But there’s a reason why meditation is so commonly recommended: it works! And for crown chakra healing it is perhaps the most important technique you can use to bring balance to this sacred energy center. There are countless meditation techniques out there ranging from breathing techniques to mantras, as well as moving to colorful visualizations. An amazingly detailed book on a vast array of meditation techniques I recommend is called The Book of Secrets: 112 Meditations to Discover the Mystery Within by Osho. I also recommend the mobile app “Calm” to help you start meditating as it has a variety of simple and free guided meditations and breathing programs.

Practice the power of prayer

Prayer doesn’t have to be religious. You can pray to whatever or whomever you believe in, whether that be your Spirit Guides, Ancestors, God/Goddess, Universe, Life, Spirit, or Soul. Prayer is very simple but also extremely beneficial. The gratitude we feel when we give thanks (which is simply one function of prayer) has been scientifically proven to have numerous health benefits. Prayer also creates an energetic bridge between you and your crown chakra. The more you pray, the more your crown chakra is opened to the Eternal. In a way, prayer can be perceived as the key that opens the door to higher consciousness.

Signs of Crown Chakra problems in Tibet: 

Our findings show that torture, abuse and degradation of Tibetan political prisoners continue in Chinese-occupied Tibet and that prisoners continue to be killed from torture and convicted as a result of confessions obtained by torture. 

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